What is Empowerment Self Defense?

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All self defense is not the same! Empowerment self defense (ESD) -- sometimes called "feminist empowerment self defense" or "empowerment model self defense" -- is a uniquely holistic, evidence-based, survivor-centered, feminist approach to self-protection skills. 

While no single, authoritative description of ESD exists, the definition below is consistent with the practice wisdom of ESD instructors in an emerging professional affiliation. It is also consistent with published research regarding self defense approaches demonstrated as effective in reducing sexual assault (e.g., Hollander, 2014; Sarnquist et al, 2014, Senn et al, 2015).

ESD is characterized by:

  • An explicitly survivor-centered ethos that holds perpetrators solely responsible for sexual violence and rejects cultural victim-blaming.
  • Evidence-based information about who commits violent and sexual assaults and who they attempt to victimize.
  • Education about healthy relationships, including consent negotiation skills and early warning signs of interpersonal violence.
  • Examination of how culture and socialization may disadvantage women from being able to trust or act upon their instincts regarding interpersonal safety.
  • Opportunities to practice assertive communication that can be used to interrupt or de-escalate violent situations.
  • Physical defense techniques that are simple to learn and effective when other options have been exhausted.
  • Healing and community organizing resources to recover from violence and increase safety for all people.

Effective ESD instructors utilize multi-modal learning methods including lecture, discussion, homework, games, personal reflection, and kinesthetic exercises. The interactive social nature of ESD classes is an important component of the learning environment. 

Read more: 

Hollander, J.A. (2014) Does self-defense training prevent sexual violence against women? Violence Against Women, 20(3), 252-269.

Sarnquist, C., Omondi, B., Sinclair, J., Gitau, C., Paiva, L., Mulinge, M., Cornfield, D. & Maldonado, Y. (2014). Rape Prevention Through Empowerment of Adolescent Girls. Pediatrics, 133(5), e1226-e1232.

Senn, C.Y, Eliasziew, M., Barata, P.C., Thurston, W.E., Newby-Clark, I.R., Radtke, L., & Hobden, K.L. (2015). Efficacy of a sexual assault resistance program for university women. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2326-2335.